Literary Criticism

Analysis of George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four

Nineteen Eighty-Four is Orwell’s final and most famous full-length work of fiction, published in 1949. In Animal Farm, Orwell had realized his goal of making political writing an art. (Although later generations would judge that he had already achieved that… Read More ›

Art Theory

While the term “art theory” may well have been employed from the Renaissance through the Enlightenment as a means of validating certain philosophical practices of art, art historians in the second half of this century have become particularly uncomfortable with… Read More ›

Moscow-Tartu Semiotic School

The Moscow-Tartu school (MTS) is a group of Soviet linguists (including Valerii Ivanov, Isaak Revzin, Vladimir Toporov), folklorists (Eleazar Meletinskij, Dmitri Segal), Orientalists (Aleksandr Piatigorskij, Boris Ogibenin), and literary scholars (including Jurij Levin, Jurij Lotman, Boris Uspenskij) who, since about… Read More ›